Subarray Removal Codechef Solution

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Subarray Removal Codechef Solution

Subarray Removal Codechef Solution

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Problem

Chef has a binary array A of length N. In one operation, Chef does the following:

1. Select any L and R such that (1 \le L \lt R \le |A|)\\2. Add A_L \oplus A_{L+1} \oplus \ldots \oplus A_R to his score (Here, \oplus denotes the bitwise XOR operation)\\3. Remove the subarray A_{L \dots R} from A

Determine the maximum score Chef can get after performing the above operation any number of times.

Input Format

  • The first line contains a single integer T — the number of test cases. Then the test cases follow.
  • The first line of each test case contains an integer N — the size of the array A.
  • The second line of each test case contains N space-separated integers A_1, A_2, \dots, A_N denoting the array A.

Output Format

For each test case, output the maximum score Chef can get.

Constraints

  • 1 \leq T \leq 10^5
  • 1 \leq N \leq 10^5
  • A_i \in \{0, 1\}
  • The sum of N over all test cases won’t exceed 2 \cdot 10^5.

Sample 1:

Input

Output

3
5
1 0 0 0 1
3
1 1 1
3
0 0 0
2
1
0

Explanation:

Test Case 1: We can perform the following moves:

  • A = [1, 0, 0, 0, 1]. Select L = 1 and R = 3 and remove subarray [1, 0, 0]A becomes [0, 1].
  • A = [0, 1]. Select L = 1 and R = 2 and remove subarray [0, 1]A becomes [].

Total score = 1 + 1 = 2

Test Case 2: We can perform the following move:

  • A = [1, 1, 1]. Select L = 1 and R = 3 and remove subarray [1, 1, 1]A becomes [].

Total score = 1

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SOLUTION

Subarray Removal Codechef Solution

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